and joints carefully fitted, angles and corners reinforced, and all joints neatly riveted and soldered together and made water-tight. Cornice work shall be reinforced with properly-shaped steel brackets, separated from the copper by 3-pound sheet lead.

   The top edge shall be formed over a heavy brass or bronze edge-strip or drip properly shaped to permit the joining of the top flashing or gutter-lining as specified elsewhere.

   Ornaments shall be stamped in soft (roofing temper) copper with dies made from approved models.

   Duplicate sets of detail drawings shall be submitted for approval.

83. Snow-Guards. (Roofers' Specification.) (-1.) Furnish and erect on sloping roofs approved copper wire snow-guards spaced not more than 18 inches apart in both directions and staggered.

   (-2.) Furnish and set at eaves a snow-stop consisting of three ½-inch bronze bars set in approved manner with bronze supports.

84. Ice-Box Drain-Pan. Form ice-box drain-pan 2 inches deep of 20-ounce hard (cornice temper) copper with lap seams. The sides shall be stiffened by a roll at the top. The pan shall be not less than 16 inches square and shall have a l½-inch outlet. The outlet shall have a tube soldered to the pan of sufficient length for connection to the waste line by the plumber.

85. Saw-Tooth Roofs. Flashings for gutters in saw-tooth roof construction shall be carried up the sloping roof at least one foot beyond the "line of minimum-shadow," and shall be secured under the roof covering by cleats. Flashings shall be laid with flat seams, except on the vertical side where the flashings may be made with standing seams. Gutter-linings shall be made continuous with and an integral part of window sill nd side flashings.

   Gutter-linings over 18 inches wide shall have a full length longitudinal flat double-locked seam in the center of the gutter.

   (Under carpenters' specification provide for snow racks of boards to prevent injury when gutters are cleared of snow.)

86. Cleaning Copper. Except as otherwise specified all copper to be colored or painted shall first be thoroughly cleaned by scrubbing with a strong solution of caustic soda in hot water. After this solution has been applied the copper shall be washed off with clean water.

87. Coloring Copper. (-1) Green Patina. After the copper has been scrubbed clean the following solution shall be applied: (1) One pound of powdered sal ammoniac to 5 gallons of water. Dissolve thoroughly and let stand 24 hours. Apply with a brush, covering every part. Let stand one day and then sprinkle with clean water; or, (2), one-half pound of salt to 2 gallons of water. Apply as for (1) above.

   (-2.) Brown or Bronze. Clean the copper of all foreign substances and debris and rub it thoroughly with waste soaked in boiled linseed oil until the desired color is obtained. Touch up solder with copper bronze.

88. Painting Copper. All copper work to be painted shall first be scrubbed clean as specified elsewhere and coated with a wash composed of copper sulphate, 4 ounces to ½ gallon of lukewarm water, and ⅛ ounce of commercial nitric acid. This wash shall be applied with a brush, allowed to dry. The copper shall then be dusted with a dry brush, and given one coat of red-lead-and- oil paint and two coats white-lead-and-oil paint, composed of 15 pounds of red lead to 1 gallon of raw linseed oil, with not more than ½ pint of oil drier. All subsequent coats shall be composed of 15 pounds of white lead to 1 gallon of raw linseed oil with not more than 5 per cent of oil drier and the necessary color to give the desired tint. All painting materials shall be of the quality hereinafter specified under "Painting and Varnishing." Only those surfaces of copper work that will be exposed after installation shall be painted.

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