1. General: Insulation industry news can be found on the website of the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association.
2. General: Insulation R-Value: a handy and extensive R-value chart that covers almost all insulation and other building materials is available toward the end of the R-value (insulation) Wikipedia page. You should, of course, see the manufacturer-provided technical data sheet for the R-value of specific products.
4. Aerogel Insulation: "What is Aerogel? Theory, Properties and Applications" is a good introduction to this insulation of the future. Available on the website of AZO Materials.
5. Fiberglass Insulation: "Fiberglass Insulation: History, Hazards and Alternatives" is a decent introductory article available on the website of the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors.
7. Phenolic Foam Insulation: "Steel Deck Corrosion Associated with Phenolic Roof Insulation: Problem Causes, Prevention, Damage Assessment and Corrective Action". Great article from 1993. Very detailed. Available on the NRCA website.
8. Phenolic Foam Insulation: "Phenolic Insulation and the Building Envelope", is another article outlining the issues with this insulation (with color photographs!). From the August 2004 issue of Interface, Technical Journal of RCI, Inc., made available on the website of RCI, Inc.
9. Polyisocyanurate Insulation: An informative series of technical bulletins covering polyiso roof insulation can be seen on the website of the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association.
10. Polystyrene Insulation: "Insulation: EPS and XPS" is a good short article that details the differences between expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene insulation. The article is from 2009 and archived on the Buildings Magazine website.