1. General: A very good general article on masonry wall systems is available on this page at the Whole Building Design Guide website, which is maintained by the National Institute of Building Sciences.
2. General: "Concrete Block: Characteristics, Uses And Problems". Very short and basic. Available on the website of the US General Services Administration.
4. Waterproofing: "Durable Waterproofing for Concrete Masonry Walls: Redundancy Required" is a good introductory article. Available at the website of the Construction Specifier - the Official Magazine of CSI, which is produced by the Construction Specifications Institute.