2. General: For a fairly short explanation of what EPDM is, see the Wikipedia page here. Not much information specific to EPDM roofing, though.
3. General: The EPDM Roofing Association has thorough and pretty accurate information about EPDM roofing at this location (see the menu on the left side of the page for particular aspects of EPDM roofs). Just remember that this is an industry association that was formed with the purpose of providing "data documenting the many benefits of EPDM roofing systems" (quoted from their website).
5. Building Codes: "R905.12 Thermoset Single-Ply Roofing" from the 2015 International Residential Code and "1507.12 Thermoset Single-Ply Roofing" from the 2015 International Building Code. Both available on the UpCodes website.
6. Chemical Compatibility of EPDM: See this chart for a long list of chemicals and whether you can expect them to damage EPDM. Note that EPDM roof seam adhesive and semi-cured or uncured EPDM flashings may be affected differently than fully-cured EPDM field material. Chart is made available by Mykin Inc.
7. Inspection of EPDM roof systems: ROOFER: Membrane and Flashing Condition Indexes for Single-Ply Membrane Roofs - Inspection and Distress Manual is an extremely detailed and valuable resource put together by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Engineer Research and Development Center. Available for download at the Defense Technical Information Center website.
12. Technical: Fully Adhered EPDM: see Firestone's page here.
13. Technical: Mechanically Attached EPDM: see Firestone's page here.