1. The drawings are intended to show details for every trade involved in any particular type of construction, and are suitable for use by the drafting room in designing details.

   2. Distortion. The distortion of the details will be apparent at first glance. This has been done for emphasis so that the treatment of the copper will be clear.

   3. Arrangement. The cuts have been arranged, as nearly as possible, to show details of flashing of different kinds for various types of construction.

   4. Notes and Legend. The notes on the drawings have been simplified as much as possible to avoid too much lettering. For this reason the word "shingles" refers to all small-piece roofings, such as slate, shingles, shingle-tile, etc., except copper shingles. 

   The expressions "cap" and "counter-" flashings are used as synonymous terms throughout. 

   5. Exposed Edges. We recommend the practice shown of folding all exposed or loose edges of flashings back. The return is about ½ inch and may be done either in the shop or on the job. It stiffens the edge considerably and prevents lifting by the wind and clogging with snow and ice and attendant troubles. It also makes a neat finish. The edges are flattened tightly together. In the drawings they have been shown slightly open for clearness.

   6. Paper. The use of building paper under all flashings is recommended. To avoid confusion it has been omitted from the drawings.

   7. Patented Devices. Practically no details involving patented roofing-devices or drains have been shown. There are many of these on the market, most of which are practicable. We recommend the use of those devices which use eighteen-ounce or heavier copper, or cast brass, because they represent a quality product, the result of the best workmanship by reputable manufacturers.

   8. Copper Shingles. Flashings for copper shingles have not been shown. They are, in almost every ease, of special design, and are supplied by the manufacturer of the shingles.


Fig. 1. The flashing for a dormer window covered with shingles and on a shingle roof is shown in Fig. 1. Flashing sheets should he so placed that each sheet will lap the one below at least two inches and be separated by one shingle thickness. Sheets should extend up on the walls at least four inches and be nailed near the top with one or two copper nails as shown. Flashings will not be visible on the roof or walls except on the roof below the front wall where they lap over the top of the shingles four inches. Care should be taken to see that each sheet extends above the shingle on which it rests so it may be nailed without puncturing the shingle.

Fig. 2. A chimney on the slope of a shingle roof is shown in Fig. 2. The base flashings on the roof are formed and fastened as in Fig. 1. This method is better than that shown in Fig. 4. Cap flashings should be built in as the chimney is constructed and stepped as required by the slope of the roof. They should be built into the joints of the brick work about two inches. Each sheet should lap outside the one below at least two or three inches.

Fig. 3. A cricket, or saddle, should be formed back of all chimneys to throw the water to either side of the chimney as shown in Fig. 3. It is generally formed of wood, sloped enough to shed water, and covered with copper, thus forming a base flashing, which is turned up on the brick work, and cap flashed as described in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. The method of flashing a chimney on the ridge of a shingle roof is shown in Fig. 4. The base flashing is here shown in one large sheet but it may be made in small sheets as described in Fig. 2. The small-piece method is recommended. The cap flashing is formed as described in Figs. 2 and 3.

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