1. General: For an introduction to the types, properties, and applications of construction sealants, see "Construction Sealants 101 - Making the Connections" at the website of AIA Austin.
3. General: "The Use of Sealants in Roofing" by Karl Schaack, an article in the May 2001 issue of Interface, the Journal of the Roof Consultants' Institute (RCI, Inc.) does a good job explaining the various applications of sealant in roof construction. See also "Sealing Roof Penetrations" by Phil Georgeau from the September 2001 issue of Interface.
4. Chemical Compatibility: A useful article, "From Caulk to Sealants", from 2005 is archived at Roofing Contractor Magazine. Includes recommendations as to what type of sealant (or caulk) to use with which type of substrate material.
5. Joint Sealants: An excellent comprehensive look at joint sealants is available at this page on the Whole Building Design Guide site, which is maintained by the National Institute of Building Sciences.
6. Joint Sealants: "Joint Sealing for Buildings", prepared by the US Army Corps of Engineers, is a Unified Facilities Criteria document released in 2003. From the document: "This manual provides criteria for the design of building joints and for the selection of sealants to prevent entry of water, air, dust, light, or sound through the joints".
9. Manufacturers: See here for sealant manufacturers.